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Sex determination by mandibular ramus – a digital panoramic study


W.G.P.E Ranaweera ,

Nawaloka Premier Centre, LK
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C.M.C.T.K. Chandrasekara,

Nawaloka Hospital PLC., LK
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H.D.S. Hraputhanthiri,

Teaching Hospital, General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University, LK
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Padma De Silva,

National Dental Hospital, Ward Place, Colombo, LK
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L.H.M.I.M Herath

Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University, LK
About L.H.M.I.M
Department of Radiography and Radiotherapy
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Sex determination becomes the main part in the procedure of identification of a person by forensic investigator in a case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters, crime investigations and ethical studies. In human remains, next to pelvis, mandible is used as the best key for the sex determination. Aim of the study was to evaluate the sex dimorphism in measurements of mandibular ramus by using orthopantamographic (OPG) images. The retrospective study was conducted using digital OPG images of 175 males and 175 females between age group of 20 and 60. The measurements were taken by using tools fetched with “APL software v8.1”. Discriminant analysis was done using SPSS (version 23) software. Statistically significant relationships were found between sex and maximum ramus breadth (p=0.000), minimum ramus breadth (p=0.024), condylar height (p=0.000), projective height (p=0.000), coronoid height (p=0.000). Furthermore, condylar height showed highest sex differentiation in its measurements (Wilks’ lambda = 0.659), followed by Projective height. The study revealed higher identification rates for males (77.1%) and females (73.7%) with a total accuracy rate of 75.4% (Table 5.0). These results justify that the above said parameters can produce reliable results in sex determination from OPG. According to our results there is a relationship between maximum ramus breadth, minimum ramus breadth, condylar height, projective height, coronoid height. From all the parameters condylar height was found to be more reliable to determine sex.
How to Cite: Ranaweera, W.G.P.E., Chandrasekara, C.M.C.T.K., Hraputhanthiri, H.D.S., De Silva, P. and Herath, L.H.M.I.M., 2020. Sex determination by mandibular ramus – a digital panoramic study. Sri Lanka Journal of Forensic Medicine, Science & Law, 11(1), pp.10–19. DOI:
Published on 17 May 2020.
Peer Reviewed


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